The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) is published two proposed Advisory Circulars: AC 120-UPRT and 120-109A, aimed at upset prevention and stall prevention and recovery training.
The primary goal of the proposed AC 120-UPRT is to provide recommended practices and guidance for academic and flight simulation training device (FSTD) training for pilots to prevent developing upset conditions and ensure correct and consistent recovery responses to upsets. The AC was developed based on a review of recommended practices developed by major airplane manufacturers, labor organizations, air carriers, training organizations, simulator manufacturers, and industry representative organizations.
Core principles of this AC include:
- Enhanced instructor training on the limitations of simulation.
- Comprehensive pilot academic training on aerodynamics.
- Early recognition of divergence from intended flight path.
- Upset prevention through improvements in manual handling skills.
- Progressive intervention strategies for the pilot monitoring.
The primary goal of the proposed AC 120-109A revision is to provide guidance and best practices for training, testing, and checking for pilots to ensure correct responses to impending and full stalls.
Core principles of this Advisory Circular include:
- Reducing angle of attack is the most important pilot action in an impending or full stall.
- Pilot training should emphasize teaching the same recovery technique for impending stalls and full stalls.
- Evaluation criteria for a recovery from an impending stall should not include a predetermined value for altitude loss. Instead, criteria should consider the multitude of external and internal variables which affect the recovery altitude.
- Once the stall recovery procedure is mastered by maneuver-based training, stall prevention training should include realistic scenarios that could be encountered in operational conditions, including impending stalls with the autopilot engaged and at high altitudes.
- Full stall training should be led by the instructor, but must allow the pilot to experience the associated flight dynamics and execute a recovery.